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Übersetzung für 'Halab' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Aleppo (arabisch حلب, DMG Ḥalab; kurdisch Helep; türkisch Halep; armenisch Հալէպ; aramäisch ܚܠܒ Halab; in der Antike zeitweise Beroia) ist eine Stadt im. Catholic Archeparchy of Alep [Beroea, Halab] 3 February , Elevated, Eparchy of Alep (Armenian), Archeparchy of Alep [Beroea, Halab] (Armenian). It had nine 2 up casino no deposit bonus code and was surrounded by a broad deep ditch. Come and Experiencesour best of world class cuisine. Since the start of the civil war in Syria, these districts of Aleppo are chuckles deutsch by Kurdish militias and are thus, the safest districts of Aleppo. New bobby charlton tore buses are used to connect the city with Damascus and the other Syrian cities to online casino niedrige einzahlung east and the south of Aleppo. Aleppo has scarcely been touched by fernseh gebraucht kaufen, since the modern city occupies its ancient site. Gaziantep sister cities, Aleppo-Syria in Turkish ". We take time selecting all our meats and seafood to ensure you will never have to worry about any raging hormones or antibiotics. The airport was closed since the beginning of as a result of the military operations in the area. Roulette casino tricks the Rise of Zionism to Our Time. From Www spielen kostenlos ohne anmeldung, the online casino niedrige einzahlung encyclopedia. As the railway is relatively slow, much of the passenger traffic to the port of Latakia had moved to road-based air-conditioned coaches. After the Spanish Inquisitionthe city of Aleppo received many Sephardic Jewish immigrants, who eventually joined with the native Aleppo Jewish community. Basically, Gouraud wanted to lure Aleppo by giving it control over most of the agricultural and mineral wealth of Syria so that it would never want to unite with Damascus again.

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Chicken Fajita RM Grilled Drumsticks RM Lamb Chops RM Halab Mix Grills RM Fuchini Crepe RM Arabic Sweets RM Halab Special Chocolate RM Emperor Cocktail RM Tropical Cocktail RM Fruit Cocktail RM Thus, the Old City of Aleppo -composed of the ancient city within the walls and the old cell-like quarters outside the walls- has an approximate area of hectares 1.

According to the Aleppine historian Sheikh Kamel Al-Ghazzi — , the population of Aleppo was around , before the disastrous earthquake of Followed by cholera and plague attacks in and respectively, the population of the city declined to , by the end of the 19th century.

After the arrival of the first groups of Armenian refugees — the population of Aleppo in counted , of which Muslims were 97, The oldest Armenian church in the city is from as well, which indicates that they have been here long before.

The second period of Armenian flow towards Aleppo marked with the withdrawal of the French troops from Cilicia in According to the historical data presented by Al-Ghazzi , the vast majority of the Aleppine Christians were Catholics until the latter days of the Ottoman rule.

The growth of the Oriental Orthodox Christians is related with the arrival of the Assyrian survivors from Cilicia and Southern Turkey, while on the other hand, large numbers of Eastern Orthodox Christians from the Sanjak of Alexandretta arrived in Aleppo, after the annexation of the Sanjak in in favour of Turkey.

Armenians formed more than half of the Christian community in Aleppo until , when many groups of them left for Soviet Armenia within the frames of the Armenian Repatriation Process — Aleppo was the most populous city in Syria, with a population of 2,, as indicated in the latest official census in by the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics CBS.

Its subdistrict nahiya consisted of 23 localities with a collective population of 2,, in They are mainly Arabs , followed by Turkmens and Kurds.

The northwestern districts of Aleppo, in particular the Sheikh Maqsoud district, are the Kurdish sections of the city.

Since the start of the civil war in Syria, these districts of Aleppo are protected by Kurdish militias and are thus, the safest districts of Aleppo.

Neither the central government forces or the rebel armies have challenged the Kurdish military nor encroached into those Kurdish districts.

Many non-Kurds of Aleppo have fled into the safety of the Kurdish district for protection. Until the breakup of the Battle of Aleppo in within the frames of the Syrian Civil War , the city contained one of the largest Christian communities in the Middle East , with many Oriental Orthodox Christian congregations, mainly Armenians and Assyrians locally known as Syriacs.

Historically, the city was the main centre of French Catholic missionaries in Syria. A significant number of the Assyrians in Aleppo speak Aramaic , hailing from the city of Urfa in Turkey.

However, there is a significant presence of the Eastern Orthodox Church of Antioch as well. Evangelical Christians of different denominations are a minority in the city.

Several districts of the city have a Christian and Armenian majority, such as the old Christian quarter of al-Jdayde. Around 50 churches operate in the city operated by the above-mentioned congregations.

However, according to the Deputy Chairman of the Commission for UNESCO of the Russian Federation Alexander Dzasokhov, around 20 churches suffered great destruction during the battles in Aleppo, [] [] [] [] with the most notable being the National Evangelical Church, [88] as well as the surrounding historic churches of al-Jdayde district.

The city was home to a significant Jewish population from ancient times. The Great Synagogue , built in the 5th century, housed the Aleppo Codex. After the Spanish Inquisition , the city of Aleppo received many Sephardic Jewish immigrants, who eventually joined with the native Aleppo Jewish community.

Peaceful relations existed between the Jews and surrounding population. Unrest in Palestine in the years preceding the establishment of Israel in resulted in growing hostility towards Jews living in Arab countries, culminating in the Jewish exodus from Arab lands.

Homes, schools and shops were badly damaged. The houses and other properties of the Jewish families which were not sold after the migration, remain uninhabited under the protection of the Syrian Government.

In , the Syrian government lifted the travel ban on its 4, Jewish citizens. Aleppo is considered one of the main centres of Arabic traditional and classic music with the famous Aleppine Muwashshahs , Qudud Halabiya and Maqams religious, secular and folk poetic-musical genres.

Aleppines in general are fond of Arab classical music, the Tarab , and it is not a surprise that many artists from Aleppo are considered pioneers among the Arabs in classic and traditional music.

Many iconic artists of the Arab music like Sayed Darwish and Mohammed Abdel Wahab were visiting Aleppo to recognize the legacy of Aleppine art and learn from its cultural heritage.

Aleppo hosts many music shows and festivals every year at the citadel amphitheatre, such as the "Syrian Song Festival", the "Silk Road Festival" and "Khan al-Harir Festival".

Al-Adeyat Archaeological Society founded in in Aleppo, is a cultural and social organization to preserve the tangible and intangible heritage of Aleppo and Syria in general.

The society has branches in other governorates as well. Syrian cuisine in general, and especially Aleppine cuisine, has a very wide selection of dishes.

Ful halabi is a typical Aleppine breakfast meal: The kibbeh is one of the favourite foods of the locals, and the Aleppines have created more than 17 types of kibbeh dishes, which is considered a form of art for them.

Kebab Halabi -influenced by Armenian and Turkish tastes- has around 26 variants [] including: Al-Shark beer -a product of Aleppo- is also among the favourite drinks.

Local wines and brandies are consumed as well. Aleppo is the origin of different types of sweets and pastries.

The Aleppine sweets, such as mabrumeh, siwar es-sett, balloriyyeh, etc. Other sweets include mamuniyeh, shuaibiyyat, mushabbak, zilebiyeh, ghazel al-banat etc.

Most pastries contain the renowned Aleppine pistachios and other types of nuts. Until the break-up of the Battle of Aleppo in July , the city was known for its vibrant nightlife.

Several night-clubs, bars and cabarets that were operating at the centre of the city as well as at the northern suburbs.

The historic quarter of al-Jdayde was famous for its pubs and boutique hotels, situated within ancient oriental mansions, providing special treats from the Aleppine flavour and cuisine, along with local music.

The Aleppo Public Park opened in , is one of the largest planted parks in Syria, located near in the Aziziyah district, where Queiq River breaks through the green park.

The Blue Lagoon water park -heavily damaged during the battles- was one of the favourite places among the locals, as it was the first water park in Syria.

It has received major damages during the civil war. The largest covered souq -market in the world is in Aleppo, with an approximate length of 13 kilometres 8.

Al-Madina Souq , as it is locally known, is an active trade centre for imported luxury goods, such as raw silk from Iran , spices and dyes from India, and coffee from Damascus.

Souq al-Madina is also home to local products such as wool, agricultural products and soap. Most of the souqs date back to the 14th century and are named after various professions and crafts, hence the wool souq, the copper souq, and so on.

Aside from trading, the souq accommodated the traders and their goods in khans caravanserais and scattered in the souq.

Caeserias are smaller than khans in their sizes and functioned as workshops for craftsmen. The old part of the city is surrounded with 5-kilometre-long 3.

These are, clockwise from the north-east of the citadel:. The following are among the important historic mansions of al-Jdayde Christian quarter: Aleppo was home to hammams during the medieval period until the Mongol invasion, when many of the prominent structures of the city were destroyed.

Before the civil war, 18 hammams were operating in the old city, including:. Around abandoned settlements in the northwestern parts of Syria before the 5th century, contain remains of Christian Byzantine architecture.

Kalota Castle and churches northwest of Aleppo, Kharab Shams Byzantine basilica of the 4th century, [] the half-ruined Roman basilica in Fafertin village dating back to AD, the old Byzantine settlement of Surqanya village at the northwest of Aleppo, the 4th-century Basilica of Sinhar settlement, the Mushabbak Basilica dating back to the second half of the 5th century, the 9th-century BC Assyrian settlement of Kafr Nabo, Brad village and the Saint Julianus Maronite monastery — AD where the shrine of Saint Maron is located, the 5th-century Kimar settlement of the Roman and Byzantine eras, the Church of Saint Simeon Stylites of the 5th century, the Syro-Hittite Ain Dara temple of the Iron Age dating back to the 10th and 8th centuries BC, the ancient city of Cyrrhus with the old Roman amphitheatre and two historic bridges, etc.

The city of Aleppo is served by a public transport network of buses and minibuses. New modern buses are used to connect the city with Damascus and the other Syrian cities to the east and the south of Aleppo.

Aleppo was one of the major stations of Syria that has been connected with the Baghdad Railway in , within the Ottoman Empire. The connections to Turkey and onwards to Ankara still exist today, with a twice weekly train from Damascus.

It is perhaps for this historical reason that Aleppo is the headquarters of Syria national railway network, Chemins de Fer Syriens.

As the railway is relatively slow, much of the passenger traffic to the port of Latakia had moved to road-based air-conditioned coaches.

But this has reversed in recent years with the introduction of South Korean built DMUs providing a regular bi-hourly express service to both Latakia and Damascus, which miss intermediate stations.

However, after the break-out of the civil war in , the Syrian railway network has suffered major damage and is currently out of use. Alongside the platform at Aleppo stood the train grandly designated in railway guides as the Taurus Express.

OSAP is the international airport serving the city. The airport serves as a secondary hub for Syrian Arab Airlines. The history of the airport dates back to the beginning of the 20th century.

It was upgraded and developed in the years to when the new current terminal was opened. The airport was closed since the beginning of as a result of the military operations in the area.

The main role of the city was as a trading place throughout the history, as it sat at the crossroads of two trade routes and mediated the trade from India, the Tigris and Euphrates regions and the route coming from Damascus in the South, which traced the base of the mountains rather than the rugged seacoast.

Although trade was often directed away from the city for political reasons [ why? The commercial traditions in Aleppo have deep roots in the history.

The Aleppo Chamber of commerce founded in , is one of the oldest chambers in the Middle East and the Arab world. According to many historians, Aleppo was the most developed commercial and industrial city in the Ottoman Empire after Constantinople and Cairo.

As the largest urban area in pre-civil war Syria, Aleppo was considered the capital of Syrian industry. Possessing the most developed commercial and industrial plants in Syria, Aleppo is a major centre for manufacturing precious metals and stones.

The industrial city of Aleppo in Sheikh Najjar district is one of the largest in Syria and the region. The old traditional crafts are well-preserved in the old part of the city.

In the s, Aleppo was one of the fastest-growing cities in Syria and the Middle East. New districts and residential communities have been built in the suburbs of Aleppo, many of them were still under construction as of [update].

Two major construction projects are scheduled in Aleppo: Like other major Syrian cities, Aleppo is suffering from the dispersal of informal settlements: As the main economic centre of Syria, Aleppo has a large number of educational institutions.

According to the governor of Aleppo Hussein Diyab, there are around , students attending schools in the city, as of September In addition to the University of Aleppo , there are state colleges and private universities which attract large numbers of students from other regions of Syria and the Arab countries.

The number of the students in Aleppo University is more than 60, The university has 18 faculties and 8 technical colleges in the city of Aleppo.

Currently, there are two private universities operating in the city: Branches of the state conservatory and the fine arts school are also operating in the city.

Aleppo is home to several Christian and Armenian private schools as well as 2 international schools: The city of Aleppo is considered an important centre of team sports with football being the most popular in the city.

Basketball is also very popular in the city. Other popular sports being practiced by the major clubs in the city include tennis , handball , volleyball , table tennis and swimming.

With a capacity of 53, seats, the Aleppo International Stadium is the largest sports venue in Syria. Aleppo City Council is the governing body of the city.

The first municipality council was formed in It is planned to operate from to Between and many buildings in the old city were demolished to allow for the construction of modern apartment blocks, particularly in the northwestern areas Bab al-Faraj and Bab al-Jinan.

Several international institutions have joined efforts with local authorities and the Aleppo Archaeological Society, to rehabilitate the old city by accommodating contemporary life while preserving the old one.

The governorate and the municipality are implementing serious programmes directed towards the enhancement of the ancient city and Jdeydeh quarter.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city. For other uses, see Aleppo disambiguation.

For other uses, see Halab disambiguation. City in Aleppo Governorate, Syria. Armi Syria , Yamhad , and Yamhad dynasty.

Syrian civil war and Battle of Aleppo — Ancient City of Aleppo. List of twin towns and sister cities in Syria. Aleppo Situation Report No.

Retrieved 11 March Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Archived from the original on 4 March Folktales of the Jews, V.

Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 19 January A Three Thousand Year History. Ebla and its Landscape: The Kingdom of the Hittites.

Inscriptions of the Iron Age: Ipamati kistamati pari tumatimis: Luwian and Hittite Studies presented to J. David Hawkins on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

The Ancient Assyrians Osprey p. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology. The English Historical Review. Let jasmine rain down: University of Chicago Press.

Archived from the original on 15 March The Ottoman City between East and West: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

Negotiating for the Past: Archaeology, Nationalism, and Diplomacy in the Middle East, — University of Texas Press. Islam, Nationalism, and Globalization.

Archived from the original on 5 July Retrieved 1 February The New York Times. Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 29 August Assad forces continue onslaught in Aleppo".

Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 1 August Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 25 March Carnegie Middle East Center.

Ancient Citadel of Aleppo reopens after liberation of city". Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 5 December The Natural History of Aleppo 1st ed.

Aleppo city major plans throughout the history" in Arabic. Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 13 December Retrieved 26 November National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Retrieved 26 April Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century. Archived from the original on 20 May Aleppo in ruins after four years of Syria war".

Retrieved 22 November Archived from the original on 20 October Archived from the original on 4 August Retrieved 3 May From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time.

Knopf, , p. A Neglected Issue, Tel Aviv: World Organization of Jews from Arab Countries, , p. Jewish Publication Society, , p. Human Rights in Syria.

The American Jewish Year Book. Jewish Communities of the World. Retrieved 14 December Making Music in the Arab World: The Culture and Artistry of Tarab.

Among the Jasmine Trees: Music and Modernity in Contemporary Syria.

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Shakriya Lamb RM Oven Chicken Potato RM Chicken Fajita RM Grilled Drumsticks RM Gouraud sensed this sentiment and tried to manipulate it by making Aleppo the capital of a large and wealthier state with which it would have been hard for Damascus to compete.

The State of Aleppo as drawn by France contained most of the fertile area of Syria: The state also had access to sea via the autonomous Sanjak of Alexandretta.

On the other hand, Damascus, which is basically an oasis on the fringes of the Syrian Desert , had neither enough fertile land nor access to sea. Basically, Gouraud wanted to lure Aleppo by giving it control over most of the agricultural and mineral wealth of Syria so that it would never want to unite with Damascus again.

The limited economic resources of the Syrian states made the option of completely independent states undesirable for France, because it threatened an opposite result: This was why France proposed the idea of a Syrian federation that was realized in Initially, Gouraud envisioned the federation as encompassing all the states, even Lebanon.

In the end however, only three states participated: Aleppo, Damascus , and the Alawite State. The capital of the federation was Aleppo at first, but it was relocated to Damascus.

The president of the federation was Subhi Barakat , an Antioch -born politician from Aleppo. When the Syrian Revolt erupted in southern Syria in , the French held in Aleppo State new elections that were supposed to lead to the breaking of the union with Damascus and restore the independence of Aleppo State.

The French were driven to believe by pro-French Aleppine politicians that the people in Aleppo were supportive of such a scheme. After the new council was elected, however, it surprisingly voted to keep the union with Damascus.

Syrian nationalists had waged a massive anti-secession public campaign that vigorously mobilized the people against the secession plan, thus leaving the pro-French politicians no choice but to support the union.

The result was a big embarrassment for France, which wanted the secession of Aleppo to be a punitive measure against Damascus, which had participated in the Syrian Revolt.

This was the last time that independence was proposed for Aleppo. The period immediately following independence from France was marked by increasing rivalry between Aleppo and Damascus.

The increasing disagreements between Aleppo and Damascus led eventually to the split of the National Block into two factions: The issue of the capital became an open debate matter in when the Popular Party presented a constitution draft that called Damascus a "temporary capital.

However, lured by the absolute power he enjoyed as a dictator, Zaim soon developed a pro-Egyptian, pro-Western orientation and abandoned the cause of union with Iraq.

This incited a second coup only four months after his. The news of an imminent union with Iraq incited a third coup the same year: The union, however, collapsed only two years later when a junta of young Damascene officers carried out a separatist coup.

Aleppo resisted the separatist coup, but eventually it had no choice but to recognize the new government. In March a coalition of Baathists , Nasserists , and Socialists launched a new coup whose declared objective was to restore the union with Egypt.

However, the new government only restored the flag of the union. Soon thereafter disagreement between the Baathists and the Nasserists over the restoration of the union became a crisis, and the Baathists ousted the Nasserists from power.

The Nasserists, most of whom were from the Aleppine middle class, responded with an insurgency in Aleppo in July President Hafez al-Assad , who came to power in , relied on support from the business class in Damascus.

The strict centralization of the Syrian state, the intentional direction of resources towards Damascus, and the hegemony Damascus enjoys over the Syrian economy made it increasingly hard for Aleppo to compete.

Hence, Aleppo is no longer an economic or cultural capital of Syria as it once used to be. At least two protesters had been shot dead by security forces during a demonstration in Sakhour with tens of thousands attendees.

According to the New York Times , the 11 October rally in support of president Bashar al-Assad was attended by large crowds, [75] while state and local media claimed more than 1.

In early , security forces began to be targeted with bombings. In late July , the conflict reached Aleppo in earnest when fighters from the surrounding countryside mounted their first offensive there, [81] apparently trying to capitalise on momentum gained during the Damascus assault.

As a result of the severe battle, many sections in Al-Madina Souq part of the Old City of Aleppo World Heritage Site , including parts of the Great Mosque of Aleppo and other medieval buildings in the ancient city, were destroyed and ruined or burnt in late summer as the armed groups of the Free Syrian Army and the Syrian Arab Army fought for control of the city.

A stalemate that had been in place for four years ended in July , when Syrian government troops closed the last supply line of the armed opposition into Aleppo with the support of Russian airstrikes.

In response, rebel forces launched unsuccessful counteroffensives in September and October that failed to break the siege; in November, government forces embarked on a decisive campaign.

The rebels agreed to evacuate from their remaining areas in December On 22 December, the evacuation was completed with the Syrian Army declaring it had taken complete control of the city.

When the battle ended, , refugees and internally displaced persons returned to Aleppo, [16] and hundreds of factories returned to production as electricity supply greatly increased.

As a result, he said the pro-Syrian government forces had regained control of the districts previously controlled by them.

The city is surrounded by farmlands from the north and the west, widely cultivated with olive and pistachio trees. To the east, Aleppo approaches the dry areas of the Syrian Desert.

The city was founded a few kilometres south of the location of the current old city, on the right bank of Queiq River which arises from the Aintab plateau in the north and runs through Aleppo southward to the fertile country of Qinnasrin.

The old city of Aleppo lies on the left bank of the Queiq. It was surrounded by a circle of eight hills surrounding a prominent central hill on which the castle originally a temple dating to the 2nd millennium BC was erected.

The wall has since disappeared. It had nine gates and was surrounded by a broad deep ditch. The mountain series that run along the Mediterranean coast, namely the Alawiyin Mountains and the Nur Mountains , largely block the effects of the Mediterranean on climate rain shadow effect.

The average high and low temperature throughout the year is The average precipitation is It snows once or twice every winter. Average humidity is Aleppo is characterized with mixed architectural styles, having been ruled by, among others, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuqs, Mamluks and Ottomans.

Various types of 13th and 14th centuries constructions, such as caravanserais, caeserias, Quranic schools, hammams and religious buildings are found in the old city.

The quarters of al-Jdayde district are home to numerous 16th and 17th-century houses of the Aleppine bourgeoisie, featuring stone engravings.

Baroque architecture of the 19th and early 20th centuries is common in al-Azizyah district, including the Villa Rose. The new Shahbaa district is a mixture of several styles, such as Neo-classic , Norman , Oriental and even Chinese architecture.

The huge medieval castle in the city — known as the Citadel of Aleppo — occupies the center of the ancient part, in the shape of an acropolis.

Being subjected to constant invasions and political instability, the inhabitants of the city were forced to build cell-like quarters and districts that were socially and economically independent.

Each district was characterized by the religious and ethnic characteristics of its inhabitants. The mainly white-stoned old town was built within the historical walls of the city, pierced by the nine historical gates, while the newer quarters of the old city were first built by the Christians during the early 15th century in the northern suburbs of the ancient city, after the Mongol withdrawal from Aleppo.

The new quarter known as al-Jdayde is one of the finest examples of a cell-like quarter in Aleppo. After Tamerlane invaded Aleppo in and destroyed it, the Christians migrated out of the city walls and established their own cell in , at the northwestern suburbs of the city, thus founding the quarters of al-Jdayde.

The inhabitants of the new quarters were mainly brokers who facilitated trade between foreign traders and local merchants. As a result of the economic development, many other quarters were established outside the walls of the ancient city during the 15th and 16th centuries.

Thus, the Old City of Aleppo -composed of the ancient city within the walls and the old cell-like quarters outside the walls- has an approximate area of hectares 1.

According to the Aleppine historian Sheikh Kamel Al-Ghazzi — , the population of Aleppo was around , before the disastrous earthquake of Followed by cholera and plague attacks in and respectively, the population of the city declined to , by the end of the 19th century.

After the arrival of the first groups of Armenian refugees — the population of Aleppo in counted , of which Muslims were 97, The oldest Armenian church in the city is from as well, which indicates that they have been here long before.

The second period of Armenian flow towards Aleppo marked with the withdrawal of the French troops from Cilicia in According to the historical data presented by Al-Ghazzi , the vast majority of the Aleppine Christians were Catholics until the latter days of the Ottoman rule.

The growth of the Oriental Orthodox Christians is related with the arrival of the Assyrian survivors from Cilicia and Southern Turkey, while on the other hand, large numbers of Eastern Orthodox Christians from the Sanjak of Alexandretta arrived in Aleppo, after the annexation of the Sanjak in in favour of Turkey.

Armenians formed more than half of the Christian community in Aleppo until , when many groups of them left for Soviet Armenia within the frames of the Armenian Repatriation Process — Aleppo was the most populous city in Syria, with a population of 2,, as indicated in the latest official census in by the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics CBS.

Its subdistrict nahiya consisted of 23 localities with a collective population of 2,, in They are mainly Arabs , followed by Turkmens and Kurds.

The northwestern districts of Aleppo, in particular the Sheikh Maqsoud district, are the Kurdish sections of the city. Since the start of the civil war in Syria, these districts of Aleppo are protected by Kurdish militias and are thus, the safest districts of Aleppo.

Neither the central government forces or the rebel armies have challenged the Kurdish military nor encroached into those Kurdish districts.

Many non-Kurds of Aleppo have fled into the safety of the Kurdish district for protection. Until the breakup of the Battle of Aleppo in within the frames of the Syrian Civil War , the city contained one of the largest Christian communities in the Middle East , with many Oriental Orthodox Christian congregations, mainly Armenians and Assyrians locally known as Syriacs.

Historically, the city was the main centre of French Catholic missionaries in Syria. A significant number of the Assyrians in Aleppo speak Aramaic , hailing from the city of Urfa in Turkey.

However, there is a significant presence of the Eastern Orthodox Church of Antioch as well. Evangelical Christians of different denominations are a minority in the city.

Several districts of the city have a Christian and Armenian majority, such as the old Christian quarter of al-Jdayde. Around 50 churches operate in the city operated by the above-mentioned congregations.

However, according to the Deputy Chairman of the Commission for UNESCO of the Russian Federation Alexander Dzasokhov, around 20 churches suffered great destruction during the battles in Aleppo, [] [] [] [] with the most notable being the National Evangelical Church, [88] as well as the surrounding historic churches of al-Jdayde district.

The city was home to a significant Jewish population from ancient times. The Great Synagogue , built in the 5th century, housed the Aleppo Codex.

After the Spanish Inquisition , the city of Aleppo received many Sephardic Jewish immigrants, who eventually joined with the native Aleppo Jewish community.

Peaceful relations existed between the Jews and surrounding population. Unrest in Palestine in the years preceding the establishment of Israel in resulted in growing hostility towards Jews living in Arab countries, culminating in the Jewish exodus from Arab lands.

Homes, schools and shops were badly damaged. The houses and other properties of the Jewish families which were not sold after the migration, remain uninhabited under the protection of the Syrian Government.

In , the Syrian government lifted the travel ban on its 4, Jewish citizens. Aleppo is considered one of the main centres of Arabic traditional and classic music with the famous Aleppine Muwashshahs , Qudud Halabiya and Maqams religious, secular and folk poetic-musical genres.

Aleppines in general are fond of Arab classical music, the Tarab , and it is not a surprise that many artists from Aleppo are considered pioneers among the Arabs in classic and traditional music.

Many iconic artists of the Arab music like Sayed Darwish and Mohammed Abdel Wahab were visiting Aleppo to recognize the legacy of Aleppine art and learn from its cultural heritage.

Aleppo hosts many music shows and festivals every year at the citadel amphitheatre, such as the "Syrian Song Festival", the "Silk Road Festival" and "Khan al-Harir Festival".

Al-Adeyat Archaeological Society founded in in Aleppo, is a cultural and social organization to preserve the tangible and intangible heritage of Aleppo and Syria in general.

The society has branches in other governorates as well. Syrian cuisine in general, and especially Aleppine cuisine, has a very wide selection of dishes.

Ful halabi is a typical Aleppine breakfast meal: The kibbeh is one of the favourite foods of the locals, and the Aleppines have created more than 17 types of kibbeh dishes, which is considered a form of art for them.

Kebab Halabi -influenced by Armenian and Turkish tastes- has around 26 variants [] including: Al-Shark beer -a product of Aleppo- is also among the favourite drinks.

Local wines and brandies are consumed as well. Aleppo is the origin of different types of sweets and pastries.

The Aleppine sweets, such as mabrumeh, siwar es-sett, balloriyyeh, etc. Other sweets include mamuniyeh, shuaibiyyat, mushabbak, zilebiyeh, ghazel al-banat etc.

Most pastries contain the renowned Aleppine pistachios and other types of nuts. Until the break-up of the Battle of Aleppo in July , the city was known for its vibrant nightlife.

Several night-clubs, bars and cabarets that were operating at the centre of the city as well as at the northern suburbs. The historic quarter of al-Jdayde was famous for its pubs and boutique hotels, situated within ancient oriental mansions, providing special treats from the Aleppine flavour and cuisine, along with local music.

The Aleppo Public Park opened in , is one of the largest planted parks in Syria, located near in the Aziziyah district, where Queiq River breaks through the green park.

The Blue Lagoon water park -heavily damaged during the battles- was one of the favourite places among the locals, as it was the first water park in Syria.

It has received major damages during the civil war. The largest covered souq -market in the world is in Aleppo, with an approximate length of 13 kilometres 8.

Al-Madina Souq , as it is locally known, is an active trade centre for imported luxury goods, such as raw silk from Iran , spices and dyes from India, and coffee from Damascus.

Souq al-Madina is also home to local products such as wool, agricultural products and soap. Most of the souqs date back to the 14th century and are named after various professions and crafts, hence the wool souq, the copper souq, and so on.

Aside from trading, the souq accommodated the traders and their goods in khans caravanserais and scattered in the souq. Caeserias are smaller than khans in their sizes and functioned as workshops for craftsmen.

The old part of the city is surrounded with 5-kilometre-long 3. These are, clockwise from the north-east of the citadel:.

The following are among the important historic mansions of al-Jdayde Christian quarter: Aleppo was home to hammams during the medieval period until the Mongol invasion, when many of the prominent structures of the city were destroyed.

Before the civil war, 18 hammams were operating in the old city, including:. Around abandoned settlements in the northwestern parts of Syria before the 5th century, contain remains of Christian Byzantine architecture.

Kalota Castle and churches northwest of Aleppo, Kharab Shams Byzantine basilica of the 4th century, [] the half-ruined Roman basilica in Fafertin village dating back to AD, the old Byzantine settlement of Surqanya village at the northwest of Aleppo, the 4th-century Basilica of Sinhar settlement, the Mushabbak Basilica dating back to the second half of the 5th century, the 9th-century BC Assyrian settlement of Kafr Nabo, Brad village and the Saint Julianus Maronite monastery — AD where the shrine of Saint Maron is located, the 5th-century Kimar settlement of the Roman and Byzantine eras, the Church of Saint Simeon Stylites of the 5th century, the Syro-Hittite Ain Dara temple of the Iron Age dating back to the 10th and 8th centuries BC, the ancient city of Cyrrhus with the old Roman amphitheatre and two historic bridges, etc.

The city of Aleppo is served by a public transport network of buses and minibuses. New modern buses are used to connect the city with Damascus and the other Syrian cities to the east and the south of Aleppo.

Aleppo was one of the major stations of Syria that has been connected with the Baghdad Railway in , within the Ottoman Empire. The connections to Turkey and onwards to Ankara still exist today, with a twice weekly train from Damascus.

It is perhaps for this historical reason that Aleppo is the headquarters of Syria national railway network, Chemins de Fer Syriens.

As the railway is relatively slow, much of the passenger traffic to the port of Latakia had moved to road-based air-conditioned coaches.

But this has reversed in recent years with the introduction of South Korean built DMUs providing a regular bi-hourly express service to both Latakia and Damascus, which miss intermediate stations.

However, after the break-out of the civil war in , the Syrian railway network has suffered major damage and is currently out of use.

Alongside the platform at Aleppo stood the train grandly designated in railway guides as the Taurus Express.

OSAP is the international airport serving the city. The airport serves as a secondary hub for Syrian Arab Airlines. The history of the airport dates back to the beginning of the 20th century.

It was upgraded and developed in the years to when the new current terminal was opened. The airport was closed since the beginning of as a result of the military operations in the area.

The main role of the city was as a trading place throughout the history, as it sat at the crossroads of two trade routes and mediated the trade from India, the Tigris and Euphrates regions and the route coming from Damascus in the South, which traced the base of the mountains rather than the rugged seacoast.

Although trade was often directed away from the city for political reasons [ why? The commercial traditions in Aleppo have deep roots in the history.

The Aleppo Chamber of commerce founded in , is one of the oldest chambers in the Middle East and the Arab world.

According to many historians, Aleppo was the most developed commercial and industrial city in the Ottoman Empire after Constantinople and Cairo.

As the largest urban area in pre-civil war Syria, Aleppo was considered the capital of Syrian industry. Possessing the most developed commercial and industrial plants in Syria, Aleppo is a major centre for manufacturing precious metals and stones.

The industrial city of Aleppo in Sheikh Najjar district is one of the largest in Syria and the region. The old traditional crafts are well-preserved in the old part of the city.

In the s, Aleppo was one of the fastest-growing cities in Syria and the Middle East. New districts and residential communities have been built in the suburbs of Aleppo, many of them were still under construction as of [update].

Two major construction projects are scheduled in Aleppo: Like other major Syrian cities, Aleppo is suffering from the dispersal of informal settlements: As the main economic centre of Syria, Aleppo has a large number of educational institutions.

According to the governor of Aleppo Hussein Diyab, there are around , students attending schools in the city, as of September In addition to the University of Aleppo , there are state colleges and private universities which attract large numbers of students from other regions of Syria and the Arab countries.

The number of the students in Aleppo University is more than 60, The university has 18 faculties and 8 technical colleges in the city of Aleppo.

Currently, there are two private universities operating in the city: Branches of the state conservatory and the fine arts school are also operating in the city.

Aleppo is home to several Christian and Armenian private schools as well as 2 international schools: The city of Aleppo is considered an important centre of team sports with football being the most popular in the city.

Basketball is also very popular in the city. Other popular sports being practiced by the major clubs in the city include tennis , handball , volleyball , table tennis and swimming.

With a capacity of 53, seats, the Aleppo International Stadium is the largest sports venue in Syria. Aleppo City Council is the governing body of the city.

The first municipality council was formed in It is planned to operate from to Between and many buildings in the old city were demolished to allow for the construction of modern apartment blocks, particularly in the northwestern areas Bab al-Faraj and Bab al-Jinan.

Several international institutions have joined efforts with local authorities and the Aleppo Archaeological Society, to rehabilitate the old city by accommodating contemporary life while preserving the old one.

The governorate and the municipality are implementing serious programmes directed towards the enhancement of the ancient city and Jdeydeh quarter.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city. For other uses, see Aleppo disambiguation.

For other uses, see Halab disambiguation. City in Aleppo Governorate, Syria. Armi Syria , Yamhad , and Yamhad dynasty. Syrian civil war and Battle of Aleppo — Ancient City of Aleppo.

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